Introduction: the Social Web
Good afternoon, everyone, and welcome. My name is Doug Schmidt, and this is “YouTube and Beyond: Using the Internet to Shape the Future.” That wasn’t the original title. When I first started writing this presentation, I called it “My excuse to use Facebook at work.” Next year, I’m writing a workshop about how to nap at your desk.
In 1836, the inventor Samuel Colt patented his eponymous revolver. The gun was nicknamed “The Great Equalizer” because it no longer mattered who was bigger or stronger or faster. In a fight, having a Colt made you anyone’s equal.
In 2008, the Internet is the new Equalizer. Anyone with an Internet connection can promote a cause like a corporate giant, without a giant advertising budget!
Using the Internet to promote a cause is cheap, and it is also the best way to reach a younger audience. Statistics show that most people with Internet access spend more time online than watching television.
A study by market research company IDC showed that the average person with Internet access spends 32.7 hours per week online. However, people with Internet access only spend 16.4 hours per week watching TV. Newspapers and magazines only take up 3.9 hours per week. The difference is probably due in part to the fact that you can get television shows, news, and magazine content online. It’s also probably due in part to Internet usage at work.
The study also shows that people use the media they grew up with. The younger someone is, the more likely they are to use the Internet instead of older media forms.
The PEW Research Center has found the same thing: the younger someone is, the more likely they are to be online. A 2010 study found that 42 percent of people age 65 and older use the Internet, and 78 percent of percent of people age 50 to 64 are online, and 87 percent of people 30 to 49 are online, but just about everyone age 18 to 29, 95 percent, are online.
Of course, there are always exceptions that prove the rule. My grandpa became an internet addict at 84.
Using the Internet to promote a cause allows you to reach a younger audience with little or no financial investment. Most often, your principal investment will be time. Using the techniques I am about to teach you today, I doubled the number of visitors to Fifth Freedom’s Web site working just a few hours each week for three months.
The first thing we need to define is the topic of this presentation, the Social Web. The Social Web is anything online that connects people with similar interests, and that helps those people share content. That content can be personal information, links to Web pages, text, photos, video, or anything else on the net.
If you learn how to use the Social Web, you can make sure that the content that is being shared is your content. Best of all, you can do it for free. In most cases, your only investment will be time. If you have a few spare hours each week, you can change your community. If you don’t have any spare time, get rid of your TV.
I. What to promote? Setting up your own Web site
Before we begin, what content should you share? What is your cause? You can select an organization to support, like Easter Seals or the American Diabetes Association, and help promote their online content, or you can promote a variety of organizations, causes, and events by setting up your own Web site. There are an almost infinite number of places where you can set up one for free.
One of the best for pure ease of use is Tumblr. Go to Tumblr.com and create an account. Fill in the title of your page and a description of what you’ll be writing about, like “Disability Community Events” or “Autism Advice” or whatever your interest is. Customize the appearance of your site by picking a theme. You’ll have to scroll down past the paid themes to the free themes. If you’re really into customizing, you can even pick the font and your own header and background images.
Tumblr comes with separate templates for different kinds of posts, like text, photos, videos, audio, and so on. You can create any kind of post with email, which makes it really easy. Or if you create an audio blog with Tumblr, you can even update your site with a phone call, just like leaving a message on someone’s voicemail.
Posterous doesn’t give you much control over the appearance or functionality of your site. Its big appeal is just that it turns emails into blog posts. Pick a username and password, send them an email, and you’re done.
There’s also Blogger.com. Like Tumblr, it has themes and other options to control the appearance and functions of your site. The biggest advantage is that Blogger is owned by Google. There’s a good chance you have a Google account already. If you use Gmail or YouTube, you can log in to Blogger and start creating a site. Also, Google deals with billions of pieces of spam every single day. Their spam filter is one of the best in the world, and it’s automatically included in every Blogger site.
WordPress has more of a learning curve, but it also gives you more control over how you want your site to look and function. Go to WordPress.com and sign up for a free account. It will ask you if you want to buy a domain name, but you can just hit “no thanks” and use the free address at WordPress.com. Once you create your account, you’ll be taken to the dashboard page, where you can customize its appearance and functions. WordPress has themes, templates that control the look of your page. WordPress also has a number of widgets that allow you to add extra functions to your site, like a calendar, photos from Flickr, surveys, and lots more.
Once you have some content online, you can use the Social Web to share and promote it. I’ll be discussing the three main types of Social Web site today: social networking, social linking, and social media.
II. Social Networking: Facebook
Social networking is making connections with people and using those connections to your advantage. A social networking Web site allows you to get a visual picture of who your friends are, who your friends’ friends are, and who your friends’ friends’ friends are. You can use these sites to expand your social circle, meet new people, form new friendships and business connections, and increase your presence in your community.
There are hundreds of social networking sites, but we are limited in time so we will focus on the most popular: Facebook.com.
Facebook is not just one of the most popular social networking sites; it is also one of the most popular Web sites in the world. Facebook was founded in 2004 by a Harvard student named Mark Zuckerberg. Zuckerberg dropped out of Harvard to work on the Web site full-time. Today, he is twenty-six years old and has an estimated net worth of $13.5 billion. That’s “billion”, with a b. Who else feels like a failure? I’m in my thirties and I’m only worth about half that.
First, the site was limited to Harvard students, then Ivy League students, then college students in general. Now, it is open to anyone over the age of 13. And that’s only because of some federal privacy laws. If it were legal, they would find a way to get Facebook to fetuses.
If you don’t already have a Facebook account, signing up is pretty easy, so I won’t walk you through that. We’ll focus today on ways to use Facebook for advocacy.
a. Create a cause on Facebook
Create a “Cause” page and invite your friends to join. With a Cause page, you can organize events, spread news, and more. If you want to collect donations, you have to select a nonprofit related to your cause to receive them. If you start a cause about diabetes awareness, you could send donations to the American Diabetes Association, for example. The nonprofit has to be a 501c3, which if I remember correctly is a kind of robot. Be sure to read the help pages for details.
So far, Causes has raised over $30 million for 27,000 nonprofits. Some cause pages take off right away. In its first year, the O Campaign for Cancer Prevention raised over $75,000. The nonprofit Love Without Boundaries raised $94,000 in its first two months of using Causes. These aren’t typical examples. They’re like that guy Jared in the Subway commercials. He lost 200 pounds eating fast food, but you probably won’t. Still, the possibility is there. If they can do it, maybe you can, too.
Facebook Causes are also important for raising awareness of issues. When Facebook users add your cause to their profile, all of their friends can see it. Knowing that their friends support a cause encourages Facebook users to want to learn about it and support it themselves. Even if you don’t get big fundraising bucks, you can still recruit people. Facebook causes are a fundraising opportunity and a free marketing opportunity combined.
Cause pages are an easy way to keep your group updated on news, upcoming meetings, and more. They allow users to post discussion messages. When a Facebook user “likes” your cause, all of their friends see. This helps in promotions.
Facebook is about personal relationships and friendship, so everything done on the site should have a personal touch. If anything you do sounds detached or phony, people will see through it immediately. When you write on Facebook, identify the person who wrote it, with a name and a picture. The author should be listed as “John Smith,” not “The Disability Advocacy Association.” If users can’t put a face to a message, they won’t buy it.
What kind of good can you do with a Causes page?
In September of 2007, a group of monks in Burma led a series of nonviolent, antigovernment protests. The government responded, resulting in the deaths of many monks, journalists, and civilians.
Alex Bookbinder, a Canadian college student, created a Facebook cause page called “Support the Monks Protest in Burma.” The group was created on September 19. By September 29, it had over 140,000 members. A short while later, it had half a million.
The group organized political protests in a hundred cities across the globe. These protests were attended by thousands of people.
Moderators from the group went on to create BGAN, the Burma Global Action Network, a nonprofit group dedicated to raising awareness of political issues in Burma.
And that’s just one example of the good you can do through Facebook.
b. Create Facebook events and invite people to attend.
You can create and send events from your group’s Facebook page or from a personal profile. Sending out Facebook event invitations is a quick and free way to reach a nearly unlimited number of people. Also, you probably think nobody RSVPs anymore. On Facebook, they do.
c. Use the Facebook marketplace to list services and products.
You do not have to sell anything actually related to your cause. Buying a new computer for your office? Sell the old one. When people see your listing, they won’t just see “Computer for Sale.” They will see “Acme Corporation has a computer for sale. For more information, contact the Acme Corporation at AcmeCorporation.com.”
It’s free advertising that makes you money!
Facebook profiles are public by default. If you decide to create a personal profile on Facebook, you may wish to change your privacy settings so that only your friends can see it.
Otherwise, your employer, a family member, or a member of the media may decide to search for you and find out something you don’t want them to know. There have been a number of stories in the media about people losing their jobs because their Facebook profile was open. Some people call in sick to work but, the next day, they post photos of the party they went to or the ball game they saw, and their boss finds out.
Also, if you are looking for a new job or might be looking in the future, it is an absolute necessity to make your profile private. Human resources departments are increasingly likely to search Facebook for the names of job applicants. Anything embarrassing or controversial could cost you a job. If you decide to keep your profile open to the public, then treat it like a second resume. Nothing goes in the profile unless it’s proofread, professional, and inoffensive.
III. Social Linking
In addition to social networking, the Social Web also acts as a collaborative filter. Why do we need a filter? As author Theodore Sturgeon once said, “Ninety percent of anything is crap.” This is very true. Most television, literature, film and art are not worth your time. The Internet is the same. There is a lot of content online, and most of it is not very good.
Many Social Web sites allow users to rate what they are seeing. Before you watch a video, read an article or visit a Web page, you can see what other people thought of it. “Oh, fifty out of sixty-five people enjoyed this video. I guess it’s worth my time. But I’m definitely not going to watch that one. Three thousand people said it was terrible.”
This collaborative filter also helps weed out spam.
You don’t have to be selling something to have your message marked as spam. If you try to promote a personal Web site or blog in the wrong way, you can get your message deleted or even get your account banned.
Imagine that you’re riding the bus, and the stranger in the seat next to you suddenly grabs your shoulder and says, “Hey, buddy, guess what! I wrote a book, and you need to read it! Go down to the library right now and check it out!” Are you going to read his book, or are you going to move as far away as you can? Even though he wasn’t trying to sell anything, the message was delivered in a bad way, so it gets ignored.
In order to get noticed – and not ignored – on a social linking site, you first have to learn about the site, and get a feel for the local culture.
When you join a social linking site, post at least three links to something else before you start promoting your own site. Spammers generally join a site, post a link to their junk, and leave. Posting links to something else proves that you’re interested in being involved in the social linking community and not just selfishly promoting your own material.
Imagine that you are surfing the Web at work, and you come across an article you would like to read later. You bookmark the site. Later, at home, you think “Oh, I have time to read that article now. But where was it?” The bookmark is saved on the computer at work, not your laptop at home. What to do? If only there was a way to save your bookmarks on the Internet, instead of a computer!
Enter Delicious.com. Delicious.com allows users to save their bookmarks to the Web site, rather than locally on a computer. Instead of being tied to a single browser, you can log in to your account from anywhere with Web access and get your bookmarks.
When you post a bookmark on the site, you can also “tag” it. In the Social Web, tagging refers to marking a piece of content with a relevant, descriptive word. AAPD.com has been bookmarked and tagged with “disabilities,” “voting,” “politics,” and more. That way, anyone who comes across a link to AAPD.com can tell at a glance what the site is about. If a link just says “AAPD,” the tags will let you know if it’s the American Association of People with Disabilities or the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. Also, tagging a link means that anyone searching for those terms on Delicious will get AAPD.com as a result.
Also notice that the site has been tagged with “disabilities” and “disability.” You never can tell what terms someone will search for, so you should use both.
Every time someone posts a link to a Web site, article, photo, or any other piece of content, it acts as a “vote” on Delicious. The content with the most votes gets listed as “popular.” Any popular content is sure to be seen by thousands of users.
As a result, Delicious and other social bookmarking sites represent a huge opportunity for free advertising for your cause. Just a few bookmarks on Delicious could bring you thousands of visitors. More visits to your Web site means more donations, more recruits, and more support for your cause.
While many people use Delicious just as a bookmark storage bin, everything posted to Reddit is intended to be shared. Posts to Reditt are voted up or down by other users. Users can view the most popular posts or the newest, or they can sort by topic.
The most popular posts are related to political news, technology, computers and Internet, and funny videos and pictures.
StumbleUpon is actually a piece of software and a Web site. If you visit StumbleUpon.com, you can download a special toolbar for your Web browser that allows you to “channel surf” the Internet. The controls are simple: stumble, thumbs up, thumbs down.
Unlike other social linking sites, just one or two votes can generate thousands of hits (visits to your page). Even though the site promotes itself as a means of “channel surfing” the Net, StumbleUpon also has a lower “bounce rate” than users of many other sites. StumbleUpon users stay on a site longer than Reddit or Delicious users. This means they will read more of your content.
One way to use StumbleUpon is by giving the “thumbs up” to any Web site that links to yours. For example, pretend that you’re trying to promote Example.com. Go to Google and search for “Example.com.” Visit all the sites that link to you, and give them the thumbs up. This will drive extra traffic to those sites. When those sites get visitors, they will see your link and many of them will click. You gain traffic by helping other people. And isn’t helping people what we all like to do?
Other social linking sites include Metafilter.com, Fark.com, Linkfilter.net, Furl.net, and others. Each site has its own culture and its own standards for what is “spam”, so always spend some time using and getting to know a site before you post.
IV. Social Media: Use YouTube like your own TV station
a. The Possibilities
On YouTube, simple, homemade videos have attracted millions of viewers. Today, over 30 million people visit YouTube each day, and watch over 100 million videos. Just imagine how much good could be done with a YouTube video! Imagine reaching 10, 20, 30 million people with your group’s message!
b. What makes a video go viral?
If you want your videos to be watched at all, they should be under five minutes long. Most people don’t want to watch Braveheart on a tiny screen. Your video should also have good tags. Just like posts to social linking sites, videos are tagged. If you pick good tags, more people will find your video through searches. Finally, your videos should have enticing titles and thumbnails. Once people find your video in a search, it’s the title and thumbnail that will convince them to watch.
Finally, if you want to be really popular, you have to be especially appealing to the YouTube audience. The most popular videos include at least one of five things: humor, cuteness, music and dance, pop culture references, and sex appeal.
If you spend a little time writing, you can develop a funny concept that still gets across your message. Fortunately, you don’t have to be that funny to be popular on YouTube.
You don’t actually have to write anything, either. One user created a three-part series called “Strange Faces and Noises I Can Make.” All together, the three parts received over 7 million views. That’s about how many people watched Oprah every day. Even though all he was doing was making funny faces, the videos got him an appearance in a national television commercial.
ii. Cuteness (animals and babies)
One of your friends is certain to have a cute baby or animal – or baby animal – you can film. If you don’t have access to puppies or kittens, you might be able to pay a visit to a local animal shelter and film a few. Even if cute animals and kids have nothing to do with the topic of your video, just adding them in will increase your views. Videos of nothing more than cute babies laughing have received over 60 million views. That’s more views than some $100 million blockbusters on opening weekend.
If you are a musician or know someone who is, an impressive display of musical skill is guaranteed to get views. You might someone playing an instrumental song and run some text about your cause along the bottom. If you can’t play an instrument or sing, try anyway. Your attempt might be funny enough to get people to watch.
iv. Pop culture references
Work in a few pop culture references, and anyone who enjoys that topic is sure to share it with likeminded friends.
Your pop culture references should be current and inoffensive, but not obscure. Keep things current. Much of YouTube’s audience consists of younger people. If you make references to Pat Boone, they probably won’t get the joke. People are also more likely to search for things that are currently in the news, in theaters, or on the calendar. Keep things inoffensive. Some viewers would enjoy a video filled with bad language and violence, but if you want your video to be enjoyed by as many people as possible, you should keep it family-friendly. If you’re writing a TV parody, The Simpsons would be a better choice than The Sopranos. Finally, the point of pop culture references is that they’re popular. The more popular your target, the more it will be enjoyed and shared. If you’re writing a movie parody, India Jones is a better choice than The Brain that Wouldn’t Die.
Finally, the right pop culture references mean that your video will get more traffic from people watching “related videos” on YouTube. Imagine that you have to promote a fundraiser, so you decide to make a YouTube video. In your video, an actor pretending to be Donald Trump talks about how important it is to give to charity. This means that other videos about Donald Trump will show your video in the list of “related videos.” People watching Donald Trump videos will also watch your video and learn about your fundraiser.
v. Sex appeal
First, the bad news: YouTube works just like the movies and TV. If the star of your video is young, attractive, and female, you will get a lot of views. Now, the good news: “Sex appeal” doesn’t have to involve anything R-rated. In fact, your video can even be rated G. A YouTube user named Magibon created a video where she did nothing but smile politely at the camera, and it got over 3.5 million views, just because she’s cute.
c. The Bottom Line
The bottom line with a promotional video or any other piece of marketing is this: advertising is content, content is advertising. You could be selling the cure for cancer, but if your ad is boring, people will still turn it off.
Unfortunately, most people don’t care about your message, your cause, or you. Why would they watch your video? Why would they go to your Web site? Is it useful? Is it entertaining? If not, how can you rewrite it or redesign it so it is?
Once you have something useful and entertaining, you have to promote it.
A little extra work can dramatically increase your viewers.
Back in 2008, AAPD posted two virtually identical videos promoting the Ohio Presidential Forum in Columbus. I helped to promote one, but not the other. In just two weeks, the video I helped promote had over ten times the views. If I can do that working just a few minutes a day for two weeks, imagine what you can do working for a few months on a big project.
You can promote YouTube videos internally, working on YouTube.com, and you can promote them externally, on the rest of the Internet.
e. Internal Promotions
First, get your channel page ready. Each YouTube member has a “channel”, a page of information about them. This page is visible to search engines, so anyone searching Google for your cause’s name will find your YouTube page as well.
You want to customize this page, add information about your cause, a link to your homepage, and anything else you can add to create a good impression. If you have a Facebook page or a collection of links on Delicious, you can add links to them here, as well.
When you finally post your first video, you should add a link to your Web site in the video’s description. That way, you can promote both your site and the video at the same time.
On YouTube, there are five basic ways to draw more attention to a video:
i. The number of views
ii. The number of external sites linking to the video
iii. The number of comments
iv. The number of “thumbs up” ratings
v. The number of users who have added the video to their favorites
Visitors do not have to have an account at YouTube for their visit to the video page to be added to the view count, and of course anyone can link to the page. For everything else, visitors have to register for a free account.
YouTube awards “honors” to each video – the most views, comments, and so on for each day – and the winners get more attention on the site. To get the most attention for a video, it would probably be helpful to pick a day for everyone in your group to act in a coordinated fashion. Two hundred comments in a single day would get the video noticed more than twenty comments each day for a week. If the video gets enough attention, it might get featured on the front page, which means tens of thousands of people will see it.
Another way to get attention for your video is to be involved with the YouTube community. Look for other viewers posting content similar to yours, and comment on their videos. If you have the time, you can even post video responses to other people’s videos. If your comments and video responses are entertaining, informative, or useful, people will probably look at your other videos, including the one you’re trying to promote.
f. External Promotions
i. Where to post your video
Social bookmarking sites, which we just learned about, are a great place to post your video and get more attention. Just be sure to use the right tags and ask your friends, family, and coworkers to also post the link.
Once you post a video, select “share video” to share it on Facebook, Delicious, and other Social Web sites. This will get you even more attention.
Also, if your cause has its own Web site, be sure to embed your video there on your front page. This will make certain that your Web site’s visitors are also added to your view count on YouTube.
ii. Where to embed your video
If your cause has a Web site, embed the video there first. Next, send an email to anyone you know who has a blog or Web site on a similar topic and ask them to embed the video as well. I would also recommend adding a message like “please embed this video at your site or blog” to the video’s description text.
g. A word of warning
Finally, I have a word of warning about YouTube. Like many Social Web sites, YouTube allows people to write comments on whatever is posted. YouTube is famous for having some of the worst comments on the entire Internet. Some people post spam, racist messages, homophobic messages, and other offensive things. If you are going to use YouTube, check on your videos once a week and delete anything offensive.
You can disable comments on your videos, but this makes it harder to draw attention to them on the site. You also can’t get comments in support of your cause, answer viewers’ questions about your cause, or have any real connection with visitors. So, even though it makes things easier for you, I strongly recommend against it. Just police your videos for nasty comments.
V. Social Web do’s and don’ts
Here are some do’s and don’ts to keep in mind as you work on the Social Web:
a. DO make all your Social Web content accessible
Of course, we want people with disabilities to be able to experience everything we create online. YouTube makes it very easy to add captioning to videos.
Whenever you post an image online, add text describing the image for people using screen readers.
b. DO create content about the Social Web
The Social Web is madly in love with itself. Some of the most popular content on the Social Web is content ABOUT the Social Web. YouTube users love videos about YouTube, and so on. Other topics that always do well are Google, Firefox, Apple/Mac, and anything with a lower-case “i” in front of it, iPod, iPad, iClaudius.
For our purposes, a YouTube video titled “How to use YouTube to help people with disabilities” would probably be well-received.
c. DO make a call to action
Never just promote your Web site. Tell people what you want them to do. Tell them to visit your site, leave a comment, send you an email, and buy your t-shirt, whatever. If you want help promoting your cause, ask for it! Ask people to friend you on Facebook and rate your video.
d. DO give people an incentive to help you
Tell them that promoting your video on YouTube will help spread your message, which will help people with disabilities live better lives. When you ask someone to vote on a video, say something like “Tell people how important disability issues are by giving the video five stars.”
e. DO reply to comments
If people leave comments on your Web site or video, reply to them. If you say “Good Morning” to a coworker every day, but she never says “Good Morning” back, how long are you going to keep talking to her?
Also, replying to comments and answering questions builds your image as an expert. People will learn that, if they want to know something, they should go to the person who knows: you.
f. DON’T always use the same password
If you really make a big effort to use the Social Web, you might end up with accounts on Facebook, Delicious, Reddit, YouTube, and dozens of other sites. That’s a lot of passwords to remember, but DON’T use the same password on all your accounts.
The more times you use a password, the more likely it is that a hacker could guess it. Hackers try to get account passwords, even when there is no possibility of financial gain. Look at Neopets.com. Neopets is a games site for children, everything is free, but they have a tremendous problem with scammers trying to get passwords. Use original passwords for all your accounts, and never use the same password as your email account or Web site!
g. DON’T “Spam”
How many of you read every word of your junk email? If you don’t read it, you shouldn’t expect other people to, either. Spamming may attract some Web traffic, but it will also annoy people and make your cause look unprofessional and even dishonest.
Each site that makes up part of the Social Web has its own culture and social norms. If your message does not fit in with the expectations of that culture, it might not be viewed as spam, but it will be rejected.
This can be a difficult rule to follow. Web sites have different cultures, and these cultures produce different standards for what constitutes “spam.” Some sites only reject commercial messages, blatant attempts to sell a product. Some consider even promoting a personal blog to be spam. It can take some time to get to know a site’s rules but, if you want your message and your cause to be well-received, it’s absolutely necessary.
Web forums are rather complicated. The rules about spam can change depending upon which section of the site you’re using.
h. DON’T break copyright law
Imagine spending days filming a video to promote an upcoming fundraiser, and then months to promote it, only to be threatened with a lawsuit because you didn’t have permission to use the music. Even a thirty-second clip can get you in trouble.
Anything you put on the Web should be created by you, in the public domain or used with permission. For more information, see the section in the handout on public domain and Creative Commons resources.
i. DON’T lie – Don’t misrepresent your content just to get hits.
Let’s pretend that I need to promote a fundraiser for Fifth Freedom. I create a YouTube video asking for donations. The video is on YouTube for a week and nobody watches! Well, it’s April, so I know a lot of people are searching for “April Fool’s Day” videos. I could just change the title and keywords on my video to make people think it’s about pranks, and I would get a lot more views. However, this would be a bad thing in the long run. People would realize pretty quickly that they had been tricked. Instead of watching the video and donating to Fifth Freedom, they would click on something else. If they even remember what “Fifth Freedom” is, they would think “Oh, right, that’s the organization that tricked me. I’m going to avoid them in the future.”
j. DON’T use the Social Web without a schedule and to-do list!
You can only do achieve great things with the Social Web if you stay focused. It’s easy to get distracted by funny YouTube videos or sending messages to your friends on Facebook. Sites like StumbleUpon are essentially designed to be addictive. Make a schedule and a to-do list and stick to them. If you don’t, you’ll end up wasting massive amounts of time.
Even people with no budgets can use the Internet to promote a cause. All it takes is a little creativity, a little knowhow, and some time in front of a computer.
It also takes friends. In order to promote something on the Social Web, you need support. You need people to friend you on Facebook, bookmark your site, and watch your YouTube video. But where will you find such people? Just look around you. We have a room filled with people all devoted to the same cause. We can achieve great things online and in the physical world, if we work together.
“A Brief History of the Internet”
Barry M. Leiner, Vinton G. Cerf, David D. Clark, Robert E. Kahn, Leonard Kleinrock, Daniel C. Lynch, Jon Postel, Larry G. Roberts, Stephen Wolff
“Online Papers Modestly Boost Newspaper Readership
Maturing Internet News Audience Broader Than Deep”
Pew Research Center
“IDC Finds Online Consumers Spend Almost Twice as Much Time Using the Internet as Watching TV”
IDC (Press Release)
BGAN – “About Us”